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Die Kategorien des Sinnlichen. Zu Husserls Kategorienlehre

Zurück zum Heft: Phänomenologische Forschungen 2010
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It is the aim of the paper to demonstrate the more Aristotelian than Kantian character of Husserl’s theory of categories. In Brentano’s dissertation, the distinction between the domain of ontology and the domain of logic is traced back to the Aristotelian dichotomy between being according to the forms of the categories and being in the sense of the true. This approach is also traceable in the work of Husserl. Husserl distinguishes between material categories sensuously given to the subject, and formal categories engendered by the subject in its activities of thought and judgment. On this basis, he draws a contrast between formal ontology and material ontologies, formal and material a priori, and formal and material forms of unity. Husserl considers pre-given sensuous material the ground for real categories and their differentiation. The sensuous objects have categorial determinations in the Aristotelian sense, i.e. determinations which belong to them as a consequence of their peculiarity, independently from their being-thought by the subject. On the other hand, formal categories are not material structures of the world, and have no ontological range because they represent merely subjective additions. The material viz. sensuous structure is essential to a thing, while the logical viz. judicative structure is extrinsic. The real is the sensuous and the real categories are categories of the sensuous.